The aim of this article is to draw attention to the work of a conflict analyst whose theory of ‘protracted social conflict’ – developed in a sustained. A Theory of Protracted Social Conflict. Edward E Azar, one of the forefathers of the conflict resolution field was the first to the describe violent events in the. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict.

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The dominant group isolates itself from the needs of other groups, leading to an even bigger separation edwaard groups even within an ethnicity.

The structure of the government needs to be changed so that all citizens are equally cared for and equally represented without bias or corruption. He terms this approach the ARIA model. The third stage is termed “inventing” and focuses on the “how” of “cooperatively resolving the conflict and its core through integrative solutions.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. The war, that has continued since then, has almost completely disrupted civil administration in the northern province and caused economic devastation of the whole country.

Protracted social conflict – Wikipedia

With government being “endowed with the authority to govern and use force where necessary to regulate society, to protect citizens, and to provide collective goods,” [8] the government plays a leading role in the satisfaction or lack of satisfaction of minority and identity groups.

Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. Azar states that protracted social conflicts can be characterized by “incompetent, parochial, fragile, and authoritarian governments that fail to satisfy basic human needs.

JavaScript is disabled for your browser. It generally refers to conflicts described by other researchers as protracted or intractablei.


From the research made, it wdward been found that Rwanda offers ample evidence to be referred to as a protracted social conflict. To alleviate the “underdevelopments” Azar holds responsible for protracted social violence, and in turn overcome the conflict resulting from underdevelopment, Azar points to the needs of security, development, political access and identity in terms of cultural and cojflict expression.

This stage leads to the tangible resolution of the conflict. Protracted social conflict is a theory developed by Edward Azar. The effect of this stage is termed resonance, as each side has articulated their core concerns and heard the concerns of the other actors. To overcome this division of society, national identity must be stressed over individual group identity. Four preconditions are isolated by Azar as the predominant sources of protracted social conflict: It attempts to break down “the barrier of identity through a four-phased process.

This page was last edited on 23 Septemberat edwatd The division in changed the demographics of Cyprus dramatically, putting it evward a position where federalist model would be the most appropriate.

Abstract The complexity of the conflict in Rwanda has called for the application cojflict various theories, suggestions and recommendations to the situation by various scholars and researchers in an attempt for conflict resolution.

But hostilities continued and even intensified. Conflict resolution approaches that focus on resources, or the interests of parties, may be appropriate means of conflict resolution in conflicts where the only issues are those of resource and interests; however, in protracted social conflicts the main issue is identity-based.

To overcome the dominance of the international economy, the country in question must work to build institutions that can ease global dependency and stimulate domestic economic growth. However, it remains a challenge for conflict analysts and peace builders to arrive at an accurate assessment of the actual causes of the conflict coonflict successful resolution and this provokes further analysis of the Rwanda conflict.

This in turn emphasizes Azar’s theory that the “deprivation of human needs is the underlying source of cojflict social conflict” where conflict is emphasized by the collective grievances of a group of people.


When Greek Cypriots wanted to reduce autonomy and representation of Turkish Cypriots, the latter opposed it and intercommunal violence broke out. Identifying the root causes of the Rwanda conflict might provide a baseline for redressing the evils in the wdward.

Rothman developed a unique approach of conflict resolution that is specifically designed to mitigate protracted social conflict. Their tactics, proscribed as terrorist by many countries, are ruthless, brutal and highly efficient in eliminating their opposition. This creates a “crisis of legitimacy” [9] in the governance of these countries.

This invasion caused an exodus of aboutGreek Cypriots to the south. The majority of Tamils live in northern and eastern provinces and claim them as their traditional homeland.

Protracted social conflict

Since the start of war there were some attempts to reach a ceasefire. Metadata Show full item record. Such a need for structural change is likely to result in a violent conflict. Groups that seek to satisfy their identity and security needs through conflict are in effect seeking change in the structure of their society. Therefore, to be effective, a conflict resolution framework must specifically emphasize the needs and identities of the conflicting parties.

Therefore, the theory needs to be accorded due recognition. By bringing animosities to the forefront, it is hoped that the mutual benefits of ending the conflict can be realized.

After parties have articulated their animosities, the next stage is termed the reflexive—reframing stage where the “why” and “who” of the issue is examined.

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